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Survey Sampling and Weighting

A sample survey is a method for collecting data from or about the members of a population so that inferences about the entire population can be obtained from a subset, or sample, of the population members. As an example, it may be desired to know the average length …

Spatial Econometrics

Spatial econometrics is concerned with measuring and modeling the correlation of observations generated by the inherent spatial structure of the data (Anselin, 1988). Such correlation, known as spatial dependence, may arise from local interaction of individuals, or from unobserved characteristics that are concentrated across space and that affect …

Bayesian Methods in Health Economics

Bayesian econometrics has become an increasingly popular paradigm for the fitting of economic models, since the early 1990s. Although Bayesian efforts in economics existed well before this time – perhaps originating in our specific discipline with the pioneering work of Zellner in the early 1970s – Bayesian applied …

Panel Data and Difference-in-Differences Estimation

Panel data refer to data sets consisting of multiple observations on each sampling unit. This could be generated by pooling time series observations across a variety of cross-sectional units, including countries, hospitals, firms, or randomly sampled individuals, like nurses, doctors, and patients. This encompasses longitudinal data analysis in …

Nonparametric Matching and Propensity Scores

In problems studying the effects of a given intervention or treatment on health outcomes or health costs, it is often the case that researchers and analysts are faced with using observational study data to draw inferences. The use of such data gives rise to various concerns about biases …